Horoscope parisien aquariuse

From August through February , eclipses on the Leo-Aquarius axis had been totally rocking your world. Finally, your eclipse series is officially over as the energy shifts to the Cancer-Capricorn axis. On July 2, a solar eclipse in Cancer will encourage you to take an honest look at your day-to-day realities.

How are you spending your time, Aquarius babe? Why settle for normal when you can be fabulous? Mercury Retrograde will also stir the pot on July 7 as the planet of communication begins cruising backward.

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When this swift-moving celestial body goes reverse, everything gets a little weird. Even a seemingly harmless typo can quickly transform into a total calamity, so be sure to read and reread every message with a discerning eye. Notre-Dame began a year-long celebration of the th anniversary of the laying of the first building block for the cathedral on 12 December Around 1, visitors were evacuated from the cathedral.

French police arrested two persons on 8 September after a car containing seven gas canisters was found near Notre-Dame. On 10 February , French police arrested four persons in Montpellier already known by authorities to have ties to radical Islamist organizations on charges of plotting to travel to Paris and attack the cathedral.

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On 15 April the cathedral caught fire, destroying the spire and the oak frame and lead roof. According to later studies, the fire broke out in the attic of the cathedral at The smoke detectors immediately signaled the fire to a cathedral employee, who did not summon the fire brigade but instead sent a cathedral guard to investigate. Instead of going to the attic, the guard was sent to the wrong location, to the attic of the adjoining sacristy, and reported there was no fire. The guard telephoned his supervisor, who did not immediately answer.

About fifteen minutes later the error was discovered, whereupon the guard's supervisor told him to go to the correct location. The fire brigade was still not notified. By the time guard had climbed the three hundred steps to the cathedral attic the fire was well advanced.

The spire of the cathedral collapsed at , bringing down some tons of stone and lead. The firemen inside were ordered back down. By this time the fire had spread to the north tower, where the eight bells were located. The firefighters concentrated their efforts in the tower. They feared that, if the bells fell, they could wreck the tower, and endanger the structure of the other tower and the whole cathedral. They had to ascend a stairway threatened by fire, and to contend with low water pressure for their hoses.

As other firemen watered the stairway and the roof, a team of twenty firemen climbed up the narrow stairway of the south tower, crossed to the north tower, lowered hoses to be connected to fire engines outside the cathedral, and sprayed water on the fire beneath the bells. By , they were finally able to bring the fire under control.

Since , France's cathedrals including Notre-Dame have been owned by the state, which is self-insured. Some costs might be recovered through insurance coverage if the fire is found to have been caused by contractors working on the site. AXA also provided insurance coverage for some of the relics and artworks in the cathedral.

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President Emmanuel Macron said approximately firefighters helped to battle the fire. One firefighter was seriously injured and two police officers were hurt during the blaze. An ornate tapestry woven in the early s is going on public display for only the third time in recent decades. The decoration was rescued from Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral after the fire. Immediately after the fire, President Macron promised that Notre-Dame would be restored, and called for the work to be completed within five years. President Macron suggested he was open to a "contemporary architectural gesture".

Even before the competition rules were announced, architects around the world offered suggestions: the proposals included a three hundred foot spire made of carbon fiber, covered with gold leaf; a roof built of stained glass; a greenhouse; a garden with trees, open to the sky; and a column of light pointed upwards. A poll published in the French newspaper Le Figaro on 8 May showed that fifty-five percent of French respondents wanted a spire identical to the original.

French culture minister Franck Riester promised that the restoration "will not be hasty. The 19th-century spire was destroyed in the fire. The rooster reliquary atop the spire. It was found intact in the rubble after the fire. The towers were the last major element of the cathedral to be constructed.

The south tower was built first, between and , and the north tower between and The newer north tower is slightly larger, as can be seen when they are viewed from directly in front of the church. The contrefort or buttress of the north tower is also larger. The north tower was accessible to visitors by a stairway, whose entrance was on the north side of the tower.

The stairway has steps, and has a stop at the Gothic hall at the level of the rose window, where visitors could look over the parvis and see a collection of paintings and sculpture from earlier periods of the cathedral's history. The ten bells of the cathedral are located in the south tower.

The original spire was constructed in the 13th century, probably between and It was battered, weakened and bent by the wind over five centuries, and finally was removed in The entire spire weighed tons.

In front of each group is an animal symbolising one of the four evangelists: a winged ox for Saint Luke, [88] a lion for Saint Mark, an eagle for Saint John and an angel for Saint Matthew. Just days prior to the fire, the statues were removed for restoration. The rooster weathervane atop the spire contained three relics: a tiny piece from the Crown of Thorns in the cathedral treasury, and relics of Saint Denis and Saint Genevieve , patron saints of Paris. They were placed there in by Archbishop Jean Verdier , to protect the congregation from lightning or other harm.

The rooster with relics intact was recovered in the rubble shortly after the fire. The martyr Saint Denis , holding his head, over the Portal of the Virgin. The Gothic cathedral was a liber pauperum , a "poor people's book", covered with sculpture vividly illustrating biblical stories, for the vast majority of parishioners who were illiterate. The sculpture of the right portal shows the coronation of the Virgin Mary , and the left portal shows the lives of saints who were important to Parisians, particularly Saint Anne , the mother of the Virgin Mary.

The exteriors of cathedrals and other Gothic churches were also decorated with sculptures of a variety of fabulous and frightening grotesques or monsters. These included the gargoyle , the chimera , a mythical hybrid creature which usually had the body of a lion and the head of a goat, and the Strix or stryge, a creature resembling an owl or bat , which was said to eat human flesh.

The strix appeared in classical Roman literature; it was described by the Roman poet Ovid , who was widely read in the Middle Ages, as a large-headed bird with transfixed eyes, rapacious beak, and greyish white wings. The gargoyles , which were added in about , had a more practical purpose. They were the rain spouts of the cathedral, designed to divide the torrent of water which poured from the roof after rain, and to project it outwards as far as possible from the buttresses and the walls and windows where it might erode the mortar binding the stone.

To produce many thin streams rather than a torrent of water, a large number of gargoyles were used, so they were also designed to be a decorative element of the architecture. The rainwater ran from the roof into lead gutters, then down channels on the flying buttresses, then along a channel cut in the back of the gargoyle and out of the mouth away from the cathedral. Amid all the religious figures, some of the sculptural decoration was devoted to illustrating medieval science and philosophy. The central pillar of the central door of Notre-Dame features a statue of a woman on a throne holding a scepter in her left hand, and in her right hand, two books, one open symbol of public knowledge , and the other closed esoteric knowledge , along with a ladder with seven steps, symbolizing the seven steps alchemists followed in their scientific quest of trying to transform ordinary metals into gold.

The stained glass windows of Notre-Dame, particularly the three rose windows , are among the most famous features of the cathedral. The west rose window, over the portals, was the first and smallest of the roses in Notre-Dame. It is 9. None of the original glass remains in this window; it was recreated in the 19th century. The north rose was created in about , and the south rose in about The south rose in the transept is particularly notable for its size and artistry. It is The south rose has 94 medallions, arranged in four circles, depicting scenes from the life of Christ and those who witnessed his time on earth.

The inner circle has twelve medallions showing the twelve apostles. During later restorations, some of these original medallions were moved to circles farther out. The next two circles depict celebrated martyrs and virgins. The fourth circle shows twenty angels, as well as saints important to Paris, notably Saint Denis , Margaret the Virgin with a dragon, and Saint Eustace.

The third and fourth circles also have some depictions of Old Testament subjects.


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The third circle has some medallions with scenes from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew which date from the last quarter of the 12th century. These are the oldest glass in the window. Above the rose was a window depicting Christ triumphant seated in the sky, surrounded by his Apostles. Below are sixteen windows with painted images of Prophets. The south rose had a difficult history. In it was damaged by the settling of the masonry walls, and not restored until — It was seriously damaged in the French Revolution of Rioters burned the residence of the archbishop, next to the cathedral, and many of the panes were destroyed.

The window was entirely rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in He rotated the window by fifteen degrees to give it a clear vertical and horizontal axis, and replaced the destroyed pieces of glass with new glass in the same style. The window today contains both medieval and 19th century glass. In the s, after three decades of debate, it was decided to replace many of the 19th-century grisaille windows in the nave designed by Viollet-le-Duc with new windows.

The new windows, made by Jacques Le Chevallier , are without human figures and use abstract grisaille designs and color to try to recreate the luminosity of the Cathedral's interior in the 13th century. The fire left the three great medieval rose windows essentially intact, but with some damage. The main feature still visible is the under-floor heating installed during the Roman occupation. The organ was dedicated in In , Charles Mutin modified and added several stops ; in , an electric blower was installed.


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  • Notre-Dame de Paris.

An extensive restoration and cleaning was carried out by Joseph Beuchet in Between and , the mechanical action with Barker levers was replaced with an electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed. In autumn , the electric combination system was disconnected due to short-circuit risk. A new console was installed, using the stop knobs, pedal and manual keyboards, foot pistons and balance pedals from the Jean Hermann console. Between and , Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin restored, cleaned, and modified the organ.

The current organ has stops ranks on five manuals and pedal, and more than 8, pipes. Coupure Chamade. Sostenuto for all manuals and the pedal. Cancel buttons for each division. Replay system. The cathedral has ten bells. The bourdon , called Emmanuel, weighing at 13 tons [ citation needed ] and tuned to F sharp, has been an accompaniment to some of France's major historical events since its first 15th-century casting [ citation needed ] , such as the coronation of French kings, papal visits, and the end of conflicts such as World War I and World War II.

It also rings in times of sorrow like for the funerals of the French heads of state, tragedies such as the terrorist attacks on 11 September , [] and on special holidays like Christmas , Easter , and Ascension. According to bell ringers and musicians, it is still one of the most beautiful sound vessels and one of the most remarkable of its kind in Europe.

There were also four bells that replaced those destroyed in the French Revolution.

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Placed at the top of the North Tower in , these ring daily for basic services, the Angelus and the chiming of the hours. A few years later, in , a carillon of three bells in the spire with two chimes that linked to the monumental clock were put in place and another three bells were positioned in the actual structure of Notre-Dame itself, so that they could be heard inside.

However, unfortunately, these are at present mute, although a project is currently being looked at, and hopefully will be put into place, in order to restore the Carillon to its former glory. The four bells that were put in place in are now stored, as of February About a year later, a new set of eight bells for the North Tower of Notre-Dame was being produced, along with a Grand Bell for the South Tower, just as there were originally before most were destroyed during the French Revolution.

The construction of bells is one of accuracy and precision to obtain the desired sound and the work has been entrusted to two separate companies, one in France for the eight bells and one in Belgium for the Grand Bell. Each of the new bells is named with names that have been chosen to pay tribute to saints and others who have shaped the life of Paris and the Notre-Dame.

Emmanuel is accompanied by another large bell in the south tower called Marie. At six tonnes and playing a G Sharp, Marie is the second largest bell in the cathedral. Built in a foundry in The Netherlands, it has engravings as a very distinctive feature, something which is different compared to the other bells. The phrases "Je vous salue Marie," in French, and "Via viatores quaerit," in Latin, which mean "Hail Mary" where the bell gets its name from the Virgin Mary and "The way is looking for travellers".

Below the phrase appears an image of the Baby Jesus and his parents surrounded by stars and a relief with the Adoration of the Magi. It is in charge of the Small Solennel, which is similar to the Great Solennel except that the ringing peal starts with the bourdon and the eight bells in the north tower. This ring is heard on only 1 January New Year's Day at the stroke of midnight and it replaces Emmanuel for international events. Like Emmanuel, the bells are used to mark specific moments such as the arrival at the Cathedral of the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.

In the North Tower, there are eight bells varying in size from largest to smallest. Gabriel is the largest bell there; it weighs four tons and plays an A sharp. Built in a bell foundry outside Paris in , it also chimes the hour through the day. Like Emmanuel and Marie, Gabriel is used to mark specific events. It is used mainly for masses on Sundays in ordinary times and some solemnities falling during the week in the Plenum North.

It shows 40 circular lines representing the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert and the 40 years of Moses' crossing the Sinai. Named after two saints: St. Anne , Mary's mother, and St. It has three circular lines that represent the Holy Trinity and three theological virtues. Like Emmanuel, Marie and Gabriel, Anne-Genevieve is used to mark specific moments such as the opening of the doors to the Palm Sunday mass or the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.

Also it is the only bell that does not participate in a chime called the Angelus Domini, which happens in the summer at 8am, noon and 8pm or 9am, noon and 9pm. How could one's name possibly influence one's character? But just for fun, of course, I entered my name. I assumed it wouldn't be on the list since it's an Anglophone name. It was there. Ulp, it was spot-on. I have also found a site called Astrofred ; there are many more.

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